As argued above, this has nothing to do with a straightforward
scientific revolutions and exercise physiology
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Published on: 14 November 2017
Canada Goose Jackets Lessons from a broad view of science: a commentary on Dr Robergs’ article Canada Goose Jackets
buy canada goose jacket Flavio O Pires, Associate Professor Exercise Psychophysiology Research Group, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of So Paulo, Brazil buy canada goose jacket
Canada Goose Parka I have read Dr Robergs’ article 1 with much enthusiasm, from the first to the last paragraph. He criticized my occasional piece article suggesting a probable Kuhnian paradigm shift in Exercise Sciences2. I was expecting comments and critiques to my provocative essay since its publication, approximately five years ago. Perhaps, as Philosophy of Science is complex and purely reflexive, just a few exercise scientists have devoted enough time to study it. I now have the opportunity to continue debating and applying some Philosophy in the Exercise canada goose outlet belgium Sciences perspective. Canada Goose Parka
Reading Dr Robergs’ 1 article drove me back to the Philosophy of Science to reexamine some crucial canada goose outlet online academic works essential to a better understanding of how science operates. Since my first critical essay as a beginner student in science, about «The objective knowledge» of Karl Popper 3 during lectures on canada goose outlet the Philosophy of Science by Emeritus Professor Michel Paty at the University of So Paulo, my thinking has evolved through different views of science, from Francis Bacon to Karl Popper, from Thomas Kuhn to Paul Feyerabend. Thus, the biased commentary promoted by Dr Robergs towards the falsification method did not surprise me because Karl Popper was one of the first philosophers I read as a beginner in science. Neither was canada goose outlet factory Dr Robergs’ 1 claim in favor of the falsification criteria in Exercise canada goose outlet houston Sciences entirely new 4. As a philosophy oriented scientist I learned that we may benefit from a wider view of scie.
Canada Goose Outlet I have read Dr Robergs’ article 1 with much enthusiasm, from the first to the last paragraph. He criticized my occasional piece article suggesting a probable Kuhnian paradigm shift in Exercise Sciences2. I was expecting comments and critiques to my canada goose outlet hong kong provocative essay since its publication, approximately five years ago. Perhaps, as Philosophy of Science is complex and canada goose factory outlet toronto location purely reflexive, just a few exercise scientists have devoted enough time to study it. I now have the opportunity to continue debating and applying some Philosophy in the Exercise Sciences perspective. Canada Goose Outlet
Reading Dr Robergs’ 1 article drove me back to the Philosophy of Science to reexamine some crucial academic works essential to a better understanding of how science operates. Since my first critical essay as a beginner student in science, about «The objective knowledge» of Karl Popper 3 during lectures https://www.getcanadagooseoutlet.com on the Philosophy of Science by Emeritus Professor Michel Paty at the University of So Paulo, my thinking has evolved through different views of science, from Francis Bacon to Karl Popper, from Thomas Kuhn to Paul Feyerabend. Thus, the biased commentary promoted by Dr Robergs towards the falsification method did not surprise me because Karl Popper was one of the first philosophers I read as a beginner in science. Neither was Dr Robergs’ 1 claim in favor of the falsification criteria in Exercise Sciences entirely new 4. As a philosophy oriented scientist I learned that we canada goose jacket outlet may benefit from a wider view of science as there is no infallible mode to understand science whatsoever. The falsification method assumptions may have implications on how we conceive the scientific development in Exercise Sciences, nevertheless omitted by Dr Robergs.
It is beyond of this rebuttal to present all pros and cons relative to different views of science, thus beginners in Exercise Sciences are encouraged to read different views of science in full, in order to assume a more critical positioning in scientific debates. This would be of value to understand the points I canada goose womens outlet highlight ahead about the weakness of Dr Robergs’ canada goose outlet store quebec article.
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canada goose coats To criticize my earlier Kuhnian Paradigm Shift in Exercise Science essay 2 Dr Robergs classified Karl Popper as the most contemporary philosopher of science, the owner of «the single valid approach to scientific method in Exercise Sciences» 1. According to Dr Robergs, «Popper had a simplistic view canada goose outlet store uk of the delineation between science and pseudoscience, any non critical application of science, that not based on efforts at falsification, was pseudoscientific». Curiously, Dr Robergs canada goose jacket outlet store did not warn readers about the important limitations of the falsification criteria. canada goose coats
Popper believed that the more falsifiable the hypothesis of a theory, the better the theory 5. However, the number of potential falsifiers for a given hypothesis is always infinite so that there is no measure to ensure asymmetric comparison between theories. In fact, some have argued that because falsification is never completely conclusive, the asymmetry of falsification principle proposed by Popper is actually impossible 5 6 7. For example, assuming the perspective I suggested for Exercise Sciences in 2012 2 that a «the growing acceptance of a centrally regulated effort theory has replaced the dichotomized central vs peripheral fatigue theory», exercise scientists canada goose outlet vip guided by the falsification principle should know, a priori, all possible falsifiers between these two theories in order to choose canada goose discount uk the finest one. Because a given hypothesis of a theory can be false only if we take the theory as a canada goose outlet toronto address whole in our test, the falsification of a theory is not a straightforward schema and, therefore, the application of falsification principle canada goose outlet online store review (in strict terms) in Exercise Sciences to test the Central Governor Model (CGM) is consequently impracticable.
Moreover, the need to know all conditions met by the theory before testing a hypothesis, forces scientists to oversimplify the theory since the knowledge of all conditions would be obviously canada goose outlet las vegas possible only in simple conjectures. This controversy of falsification would drive the theory to a likely separation of its important components in order to create hypothesis possibly falsifiable. As a result, the application of the falsification method to test the CGM theory would lead, at least momentously, to an oversimplification of the exercise tolerance phenomenon. Remember, the CGM was formulated as a complex, non linear, neurophysiological psychological model of exercise performance 8 10. As stated by Duhem (apud Ladyman, 2002 5) using Physics as an example, «physical science is a system that must be taken as a whole; it is an organism in which one part cannot be made to function except when the parts that are most remote from it are called into play, some more so than others, but all to some degree». Accordingly, Micklewright 11 stated that «the CGM cannot be adequately tested by observing its components in isolation».
There are other two limitations of the falsification principle that readers must be aware. First, some statements cannot be experimentally falsifiable 5. A simple and embarrassing example is the following statement: «time and space are infinite». Logically, the falsification of such a statement is experimentally impossible. Therefore, a theory asserting the existence of a phenomenon cannot be automatically classified as pseudoscience if someone fails to apply the falsification method over it. Another limitation is that the failure to find a phenomenon under some circumstances or to formulate refutable hypothesis in experimental setups may be a simple consequence of the lack of instruments to make crucial measurements 5. An exemplification of the need for instruments capable of measuring a given canada goose outlet niagara falls phenomenon was recently provided in Physics, as parts of the Gravitational Waves theory were only confirmed as a result of the investment into expensive technology. Accordingly, confirmation of the Heliocentric theory initially proposed by Copernicus was confirmed later, after the invention of the telescope 5. Regarding the CGM, some statements may not be momentously falsified due to the lack of means to falsify the theory. A technology capable of providing online feedback and feedforward measures integrated in the central nervous system, in a real time exercise is a crucial limitation in attempts to refute the CGM.
canadian goose jacket Finally, some hypothesis may not be falsified simply because they can be part of a science that is seemingly unfalsifiable 5. For example, canada goose jacket outlet toronto an unfalsifiable statement includes the Uncertainty Principle, which asserts that the more precise the determination of the position of a particle, the less precise the estimation of its momentum, and vice versa. This principle is apparently unfalsifiable, as results that do not match a given estimation cannot work to refute the theory. In fact, the falsification principle is unable to deal with probabilistic statements, being an inconvenient mismatch between logic and observation in the falsification perspective 5. Although one may argue that the CGM theory does not fit to probabilistic statements, the knowledge of such a limitation is important to highlight that falsification principle is far for being a universal principle for Philosophy of Science. In fact, incredible progress observed in Epidemiology and Pharmacy sciences (among others) cannot be explained by falsification. canadian goose jacket
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I acknowledge that the Critical Rationalism embedded in the falsification method of Karl Popper could lead to a more critical and rational use of the scientific method in Exercise Sciences, as this may guide scientists to crucial questions and important investigations in some circumstances. Nonetheless, the falsification principle must be applied with balance, just as we should do with positive induction process. Otherwise, Popperian canada goose outlet legit philosophy will be incompatible with the actual practice in science.
Different from Dr Robergs’ conclusion, Katch (1986) 12 seemed to have referred to Karl Popper just to highlight the importance of inductive inferences derived from exclusion research. In my opinion, Katch (1986) did not affirm that «Karl Popper was the philosopher who has contributed most to the understanding of the ideal tenants of the scientific method». For example, when Dr Katch referred to experiments by Dr Brooks challenging the anaerobic threshold concept (page 594) 12, he suggested the use of «disproofability» as a vein to provide answers to important questions, instead of a method to decide between rival theories. Katch 12 wrote that «A new dimension to Wasserman canada goose outlet paypal hypothesis canada goose parka uk has been added that has made the hypothesis all the richer». In my opinion, he indicated that refutation provided by Dr Brooks was of canada goose outlet miami value to improve hypotheses of the theory, rather than refute the theory as a whole. Therefore, although recognizing that falsification principles may be of value to strengthen a given theory in some circumstances, we should be aware that they are only a critical canada goose clothing uk approach to apply the scientific method occasionally. As argued above, this has nothing to do with a straightforward way to set a theory as acceptable/valid, once the choice between rival theories may involve a more complex dilemma. Accordingly, the best scenario of falsification method in Exercise Sciences is to guide scientists when using the scientific method in critical enquiries. Therefore, the acceptance or rejection of the CGM theory based exclusively on the falsification criteria is not practicable.
canada goose clearance sale It is important to point out that Popperian scientists make their initial judgments about a hypothesis based on accepted knowledge derived from prior theories and experimentations. Hence, Popperian scientists must accept past experiences in order to formulate falsifiable hypothesis, thus falling back in induction. Actually, a scientist can believe in empirical consequences of a given theory only if he believes in the truth of the background assumptions. Popperian scientists should consciously admit the use of induction process in their observations when proposing balanced experimentation, because it is impossible to leave induction processes out from scientific scenarios. This is crucial for scientists intending to avoid novel assumptions when formulating a hypothesis and its experimentation, otherwise a purely nave Popperian approach may lead them to reject a theory and its predictions before having a better theory for replacement. This is what happens if we take Dr Robergs’ suggestion integrally (despite arguing that CGM theory is a pseudoscience, he offered no alternative explanation for the phenomenon). canada goose clearance sale
canada goose store An important aspect that beginners in science should consider is that some have argued that the change of meaning of terms and logic is sometimes reasonable and more convenient than rejecting a particular theory 5. The Atomic theory provides a simple example of a change of meaning of a term, as this theory first defined the atom as the least indivisible particle, however when scientists found that atom was divisible canada goose outlet toronto location they redefined the meaning of atom in order not to abandon the theory. In this example, the use of nave falsification principles may have led scientists to abandon the Atomic theory, thus blocking an incredible scientific progress in Biology, Chemistry and other sciences. Therefore, rather than abandoning the CGM theory, perhaps is time to canada goose outlet los angeles redefine the meaning of some terms to refine the theory, as recently suggested elsewhere 13 14. The final word about the acceptability of this theory belongs to the scientific community. canada goose store
Canada Goose online The Kuhnian Paradigm Shift in Exercise Sciences Canada Goose online
canada goose coats on sale I agree with Dr Roberg, «Kuhn did not write his text with the intention of presenting a model for how the scientific method, or science itself, should work», accordingly neither I defended such a principle in my previous article 2. I am not sure about the implicit message left by him suggesting my Kuhnian approach as inadequate 1. As argued in my paper, there has occurred a change on how the Exercise Sciences community has focused on the limits of exercise tolerance 2. My suggestion of Paradigm Shift in Exercise Sciences was based on aspects that, together, may indicate a change of focus of the Exercise Sciences community and growing acceptance of a new canada goose uk site theory. canada goose coats on sale
canada goose Besides the omission of canada goose outlet store toronto the work of Karl Popper, the most fundamental concern of Dr Robergs was the use of citations number in my essay (the argument that Exercise Physiology is not a discipline is irrelevant to this debate), since he conceived I used the number of citations by itself, to infer acceptance of a topic/theory. He correctly argued that «Journal citations or topical preference cannot be interpreted as evidence of acceptance or agreement» 1. Curiously, Dr Robergs omitted the fact that I used two other aspects together, to indicate a growing acceptance of a centrally regulated effort model. Thus, he misunderstood that I used the number of citations to indicate «focus», rather than «agreement or acceptance». As I wrote in my previous article 2, «number of citations about a specific theme could indicate the focus of a particular scientific community along time». Furthermore, in addition to number of citations I used the number of views on specific websites as an indication to where the Exercise Sciences community has its focus. canada goose
Besides the number of citations (1), I pointed out that the increased debate on issues challenged by the CGM (2) and the inclination of the scientific community to incorporate a new interpretation (3) could indicate, together, a growing acceptance. I argued that traditional important journals of Exercise Sciences had published specific contents about fatigue mechanisms, highlighting central mechanisms that could be involved in the exercise regulation. Furthermore, important researchers involved with mechanisms of the traditional central vs peripheral fatigue dilemma had started to recognize the importance of integrative explanations for the limits canada goose outlet black friday sale of exercise tolerance. I further assumed that «Perhaps, the most relevant is that scientists from different fields have highlighted mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the limits of exercise». Therefore, different from what Dr Robergs suggested 1, I used three different aspects to indicate where the Exercise Sciences community has focused on, probably suggesting an intellectual trajectory towards the acceptance of a different theory.
buy canada goose jacket cheap According to a Kuhnian view of Science, the degree of confirmation given by experimentation is not objective, therefore no demarcation criteria can determine logically which theory is most justified by the evidence 6 15. The scientific community as a whole regards the theory as justified 5. I wrote on page 2 of my paper 2 that «the impossibility of performing neutral comparisons with standardized rules to determine the truth of a theory, labelled by Kuhn as «incommensurability of theories», collective judgement is an popular pills online buy priligy usa. important criterion to decide between rival theories in the Kuhnian process». Thus, criteria 1, 2 and 3 together may suggest that the Exercise Sciences community has changed the focus toward a growing acceptance of a new, integrative theory buy canada goose jacket cheap.